Ad Gloriam Dei

"Therefore, whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God." - 1 Corintians 10:31

"Let us pursue the things which make for peace and those by which one may edify another"- Romans 14:19

"As iron sharpens iron, so a man sharpens the countenance of his friend." - Proverbs 27:17

Saturday, September 08, 2007

The Second Reformation: The Covenants, the Civil War and the Westminster Standards

1638 The National Covenant renewed, amidst great excitement, in Edinburgh (Feb. 28). The people stirred against “Arminianism, popery, and despotism” and the King is compelled to allow a free General Assembly to meet. The independence of the Church is re-asserted. Charles attempts to subdue Scotland by force but is defeated in the First and Second Bishops' Wars (1639-40).

1641 A great slaughter of Protestants takes place in Ireland, which leads to Cromwell’s Army going there to subdue the rebellion.

1642 Preachers, including John Livingston, ministering as chaplains to the Scottish Army in Ulster, set up the first presbytery in Ireland.

The Civil War commences in England.

1643 The predominantly Puritan Parliament seeks aid from Scotland and by The Solemn League and Covenant the English Puritans and Scottish Presbyterians pledge their nations to unifor­mity in religion according to The Word of God.

The SL&C leads to the Westminster Assembly producing a Psalter, various directories for worship and church government, The Confession of Faith, and The Larger and Shorter Catechisms.

1645 Royalist army defeated at Naseby by Parliamentary forces. Disagreement on how the defeated King should be treated occasions a breach in the English-Scottish alliance. In Second Civil War (1648) Scots fight for King against Parliament. (The Scots had no objection to monarchy as such; they strongly resented Charles's execution in 1649, and immediately declared his son, Charles II, the lawful suc­cessor to the throne.) The English army, under Cromwell, invades Scotland and obtains victory over the Scots at Dunbar (1650).

1651 The Scots crown Charles II at Scone, but at Worcester are again defeated by Cromwell, and the country remains largely under English control for next nine years. (Despite internal divisions and the interference of Cromwell, the Church of Scotland enjoyed a period of spiritual prosperity – “piety was both more intense and more widely diffused than it has ever since been in Scotland – T. McCrie.) Students trained by Dickson in Edinburgh and by Ruther­ford at St. Andrews.




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